The following elements affect the outcome, or the physical and emotional effects of any breathing exercise: 

  • The length of the inhalation
  • The length of the exhalation (usually twice as long as the inhalation) 
  • How long you retain your breath after inhalation
  • The volume of air you inhale or exhale
  • The ratio of each part of your breath (the inhalation, exhalation, and retention)
  • Where in your body you focus your thoughts (for example, your heart or your navel)
  • The number of times you repeat an exercise or a cycle of breaths

Source: The Art of Breathing Well for Harmony, Happiness, and Health by Swami Saradananda